Migration is defined as the movement of people from one geographical area to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement. In migration, the region where people are leaving is called the source region while the region where people are entering is called the receiving or destination region.
Types of migration
There are two types of migration. These are emigration and immigration.
Emigration is the type of migration in which people leave their own countries i.e. movement out of a country.
Immigration is the type of migration in which people enter into another country i.e. movement into another country.
Forms of migration
Migration from one place to another takes different forms. These include:
- Rural-urban migration – this is the movement of people from rural areas like villages to urban areas like town and cities.
- Rural-rural migration – this is the movement of people from a rural area to another rural area.
- Urban-rural migration – this is the movement of people from one town or city to a village.
- Urban-urban migration – this is the movement of people from one town or city to another.
- International migration – this is the movement of people from one country into another.
- Seasonal migration – this is the movement of people from one place to another at a particular season e.g. summer holidays abroad.
Factors responsible for migration
The following factors account for the migration of people from one area to another.
- Natural disasters – natural disasters like floods, famine earthquake, etc. could make people migrate out of a place to another.
- Physical conditions – the physical conditions of a place such as a climate, soils, relief may also be responsible for the migration of migrants especially when such conditions are unfavourable.
- Population pressure on land – as a result of overpopulation on land, people tends to move away from such area to another fertile area.
- Insecurity – fear of insecurity arising from war, political unrest, etc. could make people migrate.
- Differences in economic opportunities – as a result of these, people tend to migrate to where there are more economic opportunities like jobs and business transactions.
- Change in status – change in status e.g. high level of education and wealth could make people migrate e.g. from rural to urban areas.
- Differences in social amenities – owing to a difference in the availability of water, road, and electricity etc. people tend to move to where amenities are present.
Advantages of migration
- It reduces population pressure on agricultural lands at the source region
- It reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region
- It supplies migrant labour at receiving region
- It ensures the flow of capital to the source region
- It leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region
- It boosts markets at the receiving region
- It promotes cultural integration e.g. intermarriage at the receiving region
Disadvantages of migration
- It breeds social vices like crime and armed robbery at the receiving region
- It increases the cost of living at the receiving region
- It leads to pressure on social amenities at the receiving region
- It leads to the migration of able-bodied men at the source region
- It leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region
- It also leads to declining in production at the source region
- It leads to unemployment at the receiving region
- It also leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region